Sudan coup timeline: From state of emergency to Hamdok's resignation

Sudan coup timeline: From state of emergency to Hamdok's resignation
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Since the 25 October military coup against Sudan's civilian leaders, at least 57 people have been killed, according to pro-democracy medics.
Sudanese premier Abdalla Hamdok has resigned from his post [SARAH MEYSSONNIER/POOL/AFP/Getty]

After civilian Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok resigned following another deadly crackdown on pro-democracy protesters, we look at developments in Sudan since the October coup which disrupted a transition to civilian rule in the wake of dictator Omar Al-Bashir's overthrow in 2019.

Civilian leaders detained

On 25 October, soldiers arrest civilian members of the transitional government, including Hamdok, for refusing to back their takeover.

Led by General Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, they declare a state of emergency.

Hamdok's office urges protesters to take to the streets, where security forces fire on demonstrators, killing several and wounding dozens.

The coup sparks an immediate international backlash, with calls to free Hamdok. The United States says it is pausing $700 million in aid.

Protesters stand firm

Protesters remain on the streets overnight and into 26 October, manning barricades and chanting, "No to military rule."

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Shops remain shuttered after calls for a campaign of civil disobedience.

Hamdok is put under house arrest.

On 27 October, Sudanese security forces make sweeping arrests of protesters, after officers fire tear gas and dismantle barricades.

International pressure

The African Union suspends Sudan, and the World Bank freezes vital aid to the poverty-stricken country, already hit by a dire economic crisis.

On 28 October, more tear gas is fired along with rubber-coated bullets to disperse furious protests, as the UN Security Council calls on the new military rulers to restore the civilian-led government.

Ministers released

On 4 November, as international pressure builds, four civilian ministers are released.

A week later Burhan - the de facto strongman since Bashir was ousted in 2019 - forms a new ruling council.

He maintains his position as chief, while military figures and ex-rebel leaders keep their posts. The main bloc demanding a transfer to civilian rule is excluded.

Blood on the streets

But at least five people are killed on 13 November by security forces seeking to stem anti-coup protests.

And in what becomes the bloodiest day since the coup, 15 protesters are shot dead by security forces on 17 November.

Deal for Hamdok's return

Four days later Burhan and Hamdok sign a 14-point deal to reverse the military takeover and restore the transition to civilian rule, with elections in 2023.

Hamdok is reinstated as prime minister, and the deal says all political detainees will be freed.

But thousands reject the pact and take to the streets in renewed protests nationwide as a crackdown continues.

Several civilian leaders detained since the coup are released.

Anniversary protests

On 19 December - the third anniversary of Bashir's overthrow - two men are shot dead and the UN says it received allegations that 13 women and girls were raped during rallies by hundreds of thousands of protesters pushing for a civilian-led transition.

Thousands more gather six days later braving a heavy presence of security forces who fire tear gas to disperse them.

More anti-coup protests erupt on 30 December, despite the cutting of communication links and a tight lockdown in the capital.

Hamdok quits

After security forces kill three more protesters on Sunday Hamdok resigns, saying Sudan "is crossing a dangerous turning point that threatens its whole survival."

Since the 25 October coup, at least 57 people have been killed, according to pro-democracy medics.